A growing body of research has identified additional molecular mediators of cue-drug memory reconsolidation. You can use electric current as described above. While the results are intriguing, there are potential clinical limitations as the researchers did not assess whether repeated priming was effective against cue-induced reinstatement, or if it could prevent reacquisition of self-administration if cocaine availability became response contingent again.
You will encourage new learning the creation of new memories to counter-balance and eventually outweigh the effects of older memories, for example. Memory extinction and reconsolidation Retrieval of a previously consolidated stimulus-reward memory in the absence of reinforcement can lead the memory to undergo two distinct and independent neurobiological processes — extinction and reconsolidation.
Here we review the molecular mechanisms underlying reconsolidation of appetitive and drug-rewarded memories, and discuss how these findings contribute to our understanding of the nature of this process.
Therefore, US reactivation using the drug itself may enable disruption of reconsolidation of multiple drug-associated memories at once, which could be very useful clinically. Contrary to the long-held idea that memories are static and fixed, new studies in the last decade have shown that memories are dynamic and changeable.
Unfortunately, many clinical studies have not found CET to be an effective treatment for addiction Conklin and Tiffany, Mechanisms of reconsolidation of drug-associated memories In addition to understanding mechanisms of extinction, investigations of reconsolidation processes have intensified in recent years Tronson and Taylor, Consequently, more research is needed to understand how drugs of abuse alter learning and memory processes, as it is unlikely that the molecular underpinnings of drug-associated memories completely overlap with other forms of memory, such as fear.
Memory consolidation and reconsolidation drug addiction researchers found that repeated priming with cocaine reduced drug-seeking responses when rats were then given access to the lever that had previously produced cocaine. That memory will have just disappeared without a trace just as if you turned a computer off before saving your document.
One human fear conditioning study does support a reconsolidation interpretation as the study found that propranolol given prior to reactivation blocked emotional fear expression, but that there was no effect of propranolol in a no reactivation control group Kindt et al.
Further studies analyzing the signaling cascades that are differentially activated by extinction and reconsolidation will increase our ability to selectively modulate the two processes. While a complete erasure of memory may not be ideal in the clinical treatment setting, manipulations that profoundly weaken cue-drug associations could be efficacious in reducing craving and relapse induced by drug-associated cues.
However, the long-term effectiveness of this strategy to maintain abstinence still needs to be determined. This is an exciting shift in our understanding of the neuroscience of memory, and an exciting and innovative use of this new knowledge to help treat what can be a very painful and entirely disabling condition.
Therefore, several researchers are investigating pharmacological and molecular means of strengthening the consolidation of extinction memory. Interestingly, a study from the fear literature suggests that memory reactivation of the US shock followed by administration of a protein synthesis inhibitor results in reduced memory expression for multiple non-reactivated cues that had been associated with the shock Debiec et al.
Clinical use of extinction and reconsolidation based therapies Several researchers have attempted to use extinction learning, known as cue exposure therapy clinically, to treat addiction to a variety of drugs of abuse Conklin and Tiffany, Medications are used to treat PTSD but largely for the reduction of anxiety symptoms associated with the condition.
Finally, stress, via actions at glucocorticoid receptors in the BLA, can inhibit the reconsolidation of a morphine CPP memory Wang et al. In the study by Brunet and colleagues, propranolol was given after reactivation of the traumatic memory, suggesting that reconsolidation processes were specifically targeted, though additional controls, including non-reactivation and delayed administration groups, would strengthen a reconsolidation interpretation of the effect.
How is reconsolidation studied? Developing clinical treatments for addiction requires finding agents that can disrupt reconsolidation when given systemically, making the report demonstrating that systemic propranolol can disrupt the ability of both cocaine- and food-paired cues to act as conditioned reinforcers in rats particularly exciting Milton et al.
This observation is particularly intriguing given that chronic cocaine exposure persistently increases PKA activity Pollandt et al. Therefore, clinical studies are needed to directly test the ability of propranolol in conjunction with drug memory reactivation, or possibly prior to drug memory retrieval, to prevent relapse and determine the reactivation conditions required for effective propranolol use.
Post-traumatic Stress Disorder or PTSD is, of course, an anxiety disorder that occurs sometimes in the aftermath of exposure to a horrendous traumatic experience involving death or the threat of death. More Cocaine news By Cell Press, [RxPG] In two papers in the September 15,issue of Neuron, two groups of researchers report important progress toward such treatments, showing that they can selectively knock out memory associations connected with receiving cocaine.
These experiments have established that reconsolidation of this form of drug-associated memory requires non-protein synthesis dependent neuronal activity within the dorsal hippocampus Ramirez et al.
In addition, the procedure successfully reduced reported craving in heroin addicts Xue et al. Pre-clinical studies should test this hypothesis, and if found to be successful it may be possible to design a clinical treatment that inhibits hippocampal-mediated encoding of context during extinction.
This protein is known to be active when cocaine-conditioned memories are created. These studies have been extended to human subjects and appear to require time- and mGluR1-dependent removal of calcium permeable GluR2 lacking AMPA receptors from lateral amygdala synpases Schiller et al.
Together these studies suggest that adrenergic signaling is important for reconsolidation of appetitive memories, much like has been shown for fear reconsolidation and might be useful clinically Debiec and LeDoux, ; Debiec et al.
Environmental stimuli cues that are repeatedly associated with a drug are known to promote compulsive drug taking and craving and are a primary trigger of relapse Carter and Tiffany, ; Shalev et al. Another study of opiate addicts found a reduction in cue reactivity after CET that lasted up to 6 weeks Franken et al.
Consequently, researchers are beginning to investigate novel treatment strategies including manipulations of drug-associated memories. Concluding remarks Drug addiction is a chronic, relapsing disorder in part due to the strong associations formed between drugs and the stimuli associated with drug use.
September 15,issue of Neuron On the web: See and colleagues have reported that glutamatergic activity within the BLA is necessary for the extinction of drug-paired cue memories Fuchs et al.Persistent maladaptive memories that maintain drug seeking and are resistant to extinction are a hallmark of addiction.
As such, disruption of memory reconsolidation after retrieval has received attention for its therapeutic potential. Unrestrained reconsolidation may have the opposite effect.
Persistent maladaptive memories that maintain drug seeking and are resistant to extinction are a hallmark of addiction. As such, disruption of memory reconsolidation after retrieval has received. Memory Reconsolidation And Treatment For Post-Traumatic Stress (PTSD) Mark Dombeck, Ph.D.
An article published in the June issue of MIT's Technology Review titled "Manipulating Memory" by Emily Singer recently caught my attention. Highlights Recalled memories become labile and are vulnerable to disruption by certain agents. Expression of well-established drug memories are suppressed after disruption in addiction models.
Memory reconsolidation studies provide a potential new treatment approach to relapse. Activation of PKCzeta and PKMzeta in the Nucleus Accumbens Core Is Necessary for the Retrieval, Consolidation and Reconsolidation of Drug Memory. View Notes - Lecture 4 - addiction from NEUROSCIEN at University of Toronto.
Consolidation, reconsolidation and extinction Consolidation: new memory Reconsolidation: the process from memory.Download